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  编者按:宾语从句是初中英语语法学习中的难点,也是考试必考的重点。下面小编为同学们收集了一些宾语从句的相关语法知识,一起来看看吧!

初中英语语法宾语从句用法详解

  宾语从句基本用法解析

  复合句

  概念:复合句也称主从句,即主句和从句,从句须有引导词或叫连词引出,否则复合句不成立。由于连词既起连接主句和从句的作用,表明主从句之间的关系,还在从句中充当一定的成份,有一定的意义,故复合句中的连词常成为考查的焦点。

  宾语从句

  一.在及物动词的后面可以接一个名词来充当宾语,如:

  I know the man.

  而这时也可以用一个句子来充当宾语,如:

  I know that the man is a policeman. 

  主句 引导词 从句

  二.中考对宾语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

  1. 引导宾语从句的连词和代词选择;

  2. 宾语从句的语序;

  3. 宾语从句的时态。

  三. 宾语从句的种类

  1. 由that引导的宾语从句。that只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语和非正式文体中可以省略。例如:

  He said(that) he wanted to stay at home.

  Shedoesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill.

  I am sure(that) he will succeed.

  2. 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如:

  Do youknow who (whom) they are waiting for?

  He askedwhose handwriting was the best.

  Can youtell me where the No.3 bus stop is?

  I don’tknow why the train is late.

  3. 由if或whether引导的宾语从句。If和whether在句中的意思是“是否”。例如:

  I want toknow if (whether) he lives there.

  He askedme whether (if) I could help him.

  注意一下情况只用whether,不用if

  whether引导的从句常可以与连词or或ornot直接连用。如:

  正: Let me know whether you can comeor not.

  误: Let me know if you can come ornot.

  2. 当宾语从句提到句首时,只能用whether引导。如:

  正: Whether it is true or not, Ican’t tell.

  误: If it is true or not, I can’ttell.

  3.whether可以引导带to的不定式。如:

  正: I don’t know whether to accept orrefuse.

  误: I don’t know if to accept orrefuse.

  4.whether及其引导的成分可放于介词之后,作介词的宾语。如:

  正: I worry about whether I hurt herfeelings.

  误: I worry about if I hurt herfeelings.

  四. 宾语从句的语序

  宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如:

  I hear(that) physics isn’t easy.

  I think(that) you will like this school soon.

  Can youtell me how I can get to zoo?

  Pleasetell me when we’ll have the meeting.

  五. 宾语从句的时态

  1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什么时态就用什么时态。如:

  I don’tthink (that) you are right.

  Pleasetell us where he is.

  Can youtell me how I can get to the railway station?

  2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)。例如:

  He askedwhat time it was.

  He toldme that he was preparing for the sports meet.

  He askedif you had written to Peter.

  He saidthat he would go back to the U.S.soon.

  3. 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。例如:

  Ourteacher said that January is the first month of the year.

  Scientistshave proved that the earth turns around the sun.

  六.否定前移

  如果主句是第一人称,时态是一般现在是。并且主句的谓语动词是think, believe, suppose时,若从句包含否定的意义,否定要放在主句。

  I don’tthink I can finish the work on time.(我认为我无法按时完成工作。)

  七.如何改为宾语从句

  A.三关

  1. 引导词关

  ①陈述句,引导词用that(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略);

  ②一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;

  ③特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。

  2. 语序关

  ①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:

  He is anhonest boy. The teacher said.

  →Theteacher said(that)hewas an honest boy.

  ②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:

  Does hework hard?I wonder.

  →I wonderif/whether he works hard.

  When didhe leave?I don’t know.

  →I don’tknow when he left.

  注意:有些疑问句本身就是陈述语序

  1. Whowent there yesterday? Mary wanted to know.

  → Marywanted to know who went there yesterday.

  2. What’sthe matter with the clock? He wondered.

  → Hewondered what was the matter with the clock.

  3. 时态关

  ①如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:

  I haveheard(that)hewill come back next week.

  ②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如:

  He said(that)therewere no classes yesterday.

  注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:

  He saidthat light travels much faster than sound.

  B.人称的变化和标点的使用

  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:

  “May Iuse your knife?”He asked me.

  →He askedme if he might use my knife.

  “Do youknow her telephone number?”Heasked me.

  →He askedme if I knew her telephone number.

  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:

  Who willgive us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know whowill give us a talk.

  Do youknow?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives?

作者|Sunny

  公众号:初中英语语法知识点同步讲解

  本文为原创文章,版权归作者所有,未经授权不得转载!


初中英语语法宾语从句用法详解

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