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  :什么是主动语态和被动语态,相信很多同学在学习英语的过程中都有过这样一个疑问,下面我们一起看看这篇《什么是主动语态和被动语态》。

  1.当主语是谓语动作的发出者时,我们称之为主动语态(主动句)。

  We speak English.

  我们讲英语。

  (“讲”是主语“我们”发出的动作。)

  He is writing a letter.

  他下在写一封信。

  (writing是主语He发出的动作。)

  2. 当主语是谓语动作的承受者时,称之为被动语态(被动句):在中文里相当于“…被…”的句子

  Class 1 was defeated.

  一班被打败了。

  (主语Class 1是defeted的承受者)

  A hare was killed.

  一只野兔被打死了。

  (A hare是killed的承受者。在形式上A hare是was killed的主语,但在意思上,A hare是killed的宾语,即等于:Someone killed a hare.)

  3.大多数“主-动-宾”结构的主动句都可以转换为被动句。

  (1)将原来的宾语变为主语,并将原来的主动态动词词组变为被动态动词词组。

  This factory produces machine tools.

  →Machine tools are produced in this factory.

  The found a wallet in the car.

  →A wallet was found in the car.

  They are repairingthe bridge.

  →The bridge is being repaired.

  They have repaired the bridge.

  →The bridge has been repaired.

  They often make fun of her.

  →She is often made fun of.

  He took great care of his books.

  →His books were taken great care of.

  →Great care was taken of his books.

  (2)如果原句带有情态动词或半助动词,在变为被动句时,助动词不变,随后的主动词变为被动态。

  They should do this right now.

  → This should bedone right now.

  They may be interviewing the applicants at the moment.

  →The applicants maybe being interviewed at the moment.

  They must have finished their work.

  →Their work must have been finished

  He is likely tolet you down.

  →You are likely tobe let down.

  (3)当主动句变被动句,如果要强调施动者,可将原句主语置于by- 词组中表达出来。

  A boy found this wallet in the street.

  →This wallet was found in the street by a boy.

  (4)当主动句是一个“主-动-宾-宾”结构时,可以有两种形式。

  Father gave me a toy yesterday.

  →I was given a toy yesterday.

  →A toy was given to me yesterday.

  (5)当主动句是一个“主-动-宾-补”结构时,可将原来的宾语变为被动句的主语,原来的宾语补语变为被动句里的主语补语。

  They named the boy Tom.

  →The boy was named Tom.

  We painted the wall pink.

  →The wall was painted pink.

  三、在英语里,有些表达只能用主动语态。

  The door won’t lock.门锁不上。

  The cloth washes well.这布料很耐洗。

  The drawer won’t open.这抽屉打不开。

  His novel sells well.他的小说销路很好。

  This paper tears easily.这纸一撕就破。

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